Consider the cubic polynomial p(x)=x**3-7x+6 over the real numbers. p(3)=12 and p(-4)=-30 so by the intermediate value theorem p has a real root: ∃x.p(x)=0. Denote this root by

*'a*'. Now '

*a*exists' is surely true. But this, despite the proper name '

*a*', has to be understood as a general existential claim---the concept 'real root of p' is instantiated---since this is all we know about

*a*. So we have univocity of 'exists'. Yet we don't pay the price of a haecceity property that uniquely captures

*a*-ness. There can be no such haecceity because

*a*could be any of -3, 1, or 2.

Bill persists in seeing things in terms of theories of existence. I have increasingly come to see it as a question of how proper names are introduced into discourse, and how they subsequently work. I'm much influenced here, of course, by Ed Ockham's story-relative theory of reference. See here, and especially here.

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